At the Persian wars, the Greeks when they understood that the barbarians had fled to the mainland, were sorely vexed at their escape; nor could they determine at first what they should do, whether they should return home, or proceed to the Hellespont. In the end, however, they resolved to do neither but to make sail for the continent. So they made themselves ready for a sea-fight by the [...]
What a battle! Sheets of heavy arrows from long Indian bows arced over the war elephants that surged forward to meet Alexander's the Great Macedonian phalanx’s bristling hedge of sarissas. The Macedonian paean rang out as the great beasts crashed into the long spears, impaling themselves. Other elephants brushed aside the sharp points and waded into the Macedonian ranks, trampling men or flinging them across the field with their [...]
Of the four great battles Alexander fought in the course of his brilliant military career, the Battle of the Granicus, fought in May 334 BC, was the first–and the one in which he came closest to failure and death. The Granicus is also worthy of note because it is one of the earliest battles on record that was decided largely by cavalry strength, though coordinated with infantry support. Although [...]
Alexander the Great fought the Battle at Issus soon after the Battle at the Granicus. Like his father Philip, the glory-seeking Alexander aimed to conquer the Persian Empire. Although greatly outnumbered, he was a better tactician. The battle was bloody, Alexander suffered a thigh wound, and the Pinarus River was said to have run red with blood. Despite injury and the steep cost in human lives, he managed to win [...]
The Battle of Gaugamela is one of the lesser known battles between two famous leaders and Empires of ancient times. The Battle of Gaugamela occurred on the 1st October 331 BC and was a battle between Alexander the Great of Greece and Darius III of Persia.
The Lighthouse at Alexandria or "The Pharos at Alexandria" was the last structure to be named on Antipater of Sidon's list of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. It was constructed at the beginning of the 3rd century BCE, begun by Ptolemy Soter, the ruler of the Egyptian region after the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BCE. It was impressive in its construction and scale, and legends [...]
Naval Battle of Salamis on 29 September 480 BC Is an important battle during the Persian War, in which the Greek allies defeated the Persian navy. After the Persian victories at Artemisium and Thermopylae, king Xerxes proceeded to Athens, which he captured in the last days of September 480. Meanwhile, the Greek navy, which had managed to get away from Artemisium, stayed on the isle of Salamis, opposite Athens. The [...]
Having been turned back by the Greeks in 490 BC at the Battle of Marathon, the Persians elected to begin preparing a larger expedition to subjugate Greece. Initially planned by Emperor Darius I, the mission fell to his son Xerxes when he died in 486. Intended as a full-scale invasion, the task of assembling the necessary troops and supplies consumed several years. Marching from Asia Minor, Xerxes intended to bridge [...]