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History repeats itself, first as tragedy, second as farce.

The Brazen Bull: Torture and Execution Device

By | December 12th, 2017|Categories: Ancient Times|Tags: |

The brazen bull, bronze bull, or Sicilian bull, was a torture and execution device designed in ancient Greece. According to Diodorus Siculus, recounting the story in Bibliotheca Historica, Perillos of Athens invented and proposed it to Phalaris, the tyrant of Akragas, Sicily, as a new means of executing criminals. The bull was made entirely of bronze, hollow, with a door on one side. It was in the form and size of an actual bull and had an acoustic apparatus [...]

Lincoln Castle: Medieval Fortification in England

By | December 11th, 2017|Categories: Castles, Constructions, Medieval|Tags: , , |

Strategically sited on high ground overlooking the River Witham, Lincoln was originally established by the Romans as a Legionary Fortress and later it was converted into a colony for veterans. Following the Norman Conquest, the earlier defences were adapted into Lincoln Castle and Town Walls. Key battles were fought in the vicinity during the Anarchy and the First Barons' Wars. The Romans Sited on top of a steep escarpment overlooking an otherwise low-lying landscape, Lincoln dominates the surrounding countryside. [...]

Alhambra de Granada Spain: Fortification in Spain

By | December 10th, 2017|Categories: Castles, Constructions, Medieval|Tags: , , |

Rising above the modern lower town, the Alhambra and the Albaycín, situated on two adjacent hills, form the medieval part of Granada Spain. To the east of the Alhambra, Granada Spain fortress and residence are the magnificent gardens of the Generalife, the former rural residence of the emirs who ruled this part of Spain in the 13th and 14th centuries. The residential district of the Albaycín is a rich repository of Moorish vernacular architecture, into which the traditional Andalusian [...]

American Soldier: Sergeant Leonard Alfred Funk

By | December 9th, 2017|Categories: Public Figures, World War II|Tags: , , |

It goes without saying that many gallant actions of war are often never recorded and lost to the passage of time as they are treated as simply what is required of men in combat. But if you are an American soldier, like First Sergeant Leonard A. Funk, who had already picked up a Silver Star and Distinguished Service Cross by 1945, you tend to stand out from the crowd. Which is not an easy feat for the paratrooper of [...]

Festung Hohensalzburg Castle in Austria

By | December 8th, 2017|Categories: Castles, Constructions, Medieval|Tags: , , |

Festung Hohensalzburg Castle (German: Festung Hohensalzburg, literally "High Salzburg Fortress") sits atop the Festungsberg, a small hill in the Austrian city of Salzburg. Erected at the behest of the Prince-Archbishops of Salzburg with a length of 250 m (820 ft) and a width of 150 m (490 ft), it is one of the largest medieval castles in Europe. Festung Hohensalzburg Castle is situated at an altitude of 506 m. Early history Construction of the fortress began in 1077 under Archbishop [...]

Strasbourg, French Battleship: World War II

By | December 7th, 2017|Categories: World War II|Tags: , , , |

Strasbourg was the second and last battleship of the Dunkerque class built for the French Navy before World War II.She was slightly more heavily armored than her sister ship Dunkerque. In 1922, the Washington Naval Treaty imposed a ten-year moratorium on the construction of new battlecruisers. France was allowed to replace two old battleships after 1927 for a total of 70,000 tons. In 1925, the first Italian Trento-class cruiser was laid down, and launched the following year; these ships [...]

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